Nyaya and Aristotelian Logic: A Comparative Study

ATHENS CENTER FOR INDIAN & INDO-GREEK STUDIES

RESEARCH DEPARTMENT

Section: Indo-Hellenic Studies

Type of Work: Research Thesis

Title: “Nyaya and Aristotelian Logic: A Comparative Study”

Researcher’s name: Dimitrios Chaniotis*

Started: December 2016. Status: Ongoing

Languages: English, Greek, Sanskrit

Contact, e-mail:  dc113@student.london.ac.uk

Nyaya-Aristotle-cover


AIM & REQUIREMENTS

The currently undertaken research project, aims at comparing the origins of logic as they were established either via the Nyāya school of Gautama or the celebrated Organon of Aristotle. The later was the de facto sole logical apparatus for more than 2000 years and shaped the basis of modern western logic thereafter. Through the ongoing research, it is at minimum anticipated to identify up to what extent the two distant schools influenced the modern systems of logic which have appeared and developed since the beginning of the 20th century.
In order to pursue the above and aiming at achieving the most objective substantiation of the outcome, it has been chosen the strategy of studying and deriving information from the original Sanskrit and ancient Greek texts. The existing translations will play either an assistive or mainly a secondary role. The main concern that led to this decision originates from the well established ascertainment of the writer that the wide spread translations tend to be the byproduct of other texts which also happen to be translations. The original texts are therefore being degraded to such an extent that finally lack not only in clarity but also in aesthetic appeal.
The analysis of the various texts will initially focus on the foundations of the edifice of logic as described therein. It will be examined (i) how the two schools have perceived and realized the new born science (ii) which are the fundamental functions of it and (iii) which are the primitive notions on which logic is based.
After the first tentative conclusions, the logic will be further examined from a practical point of view. In other words, it will be seen how the logical procedure is being understood and effected. A meta-logic or meta-language of logic aided by mathematical signs and symbols will be assumed where necessary.
Finally, the different paths that the two schools have paved all the way since antiquity as well as the perspectives that have been identified through their different approaches on the logical procedures, will be clarified and well analyzed.
Questions that it is envisaged to be answered through the project; Are the two systems complementary? Is the one a subset of the other? Can we assume or safety deduce on the chronological precedence of the one in relation to the other even if assuming a common Indo-European language origin? What is the connection of modern systems of logic with the two in question? Have non – classical systems of logic been influenced and to what extent either from Aristotelian or from Nyāya logic?
Contributions from scholars that can assist on this long-term project and its safe deduction of results will be more than welcome. 

CONTENTS

1.            INTRODUCTION

2.            FOUNDATION OF LOGIC – CATEGORIES

3.            INDUCTION

4.            DEDUCTION

5.            SYLLOGISMS

6.            NYAYA REASONING

7.            NYAYA PRINCIPLES

8.            NYAYA ARGUMENTS

9.            COMPARISON OF THE TWO SYSTEMS OF LOGIC

10.         CONNECTION WITH PROPOSITIONAL LOGIC

11.         SIMILARITIES WITH FIRST ORDER LOGIC

11.         NYAYA AND PARACONSISTENT LOGIC- LINKS

12.         ARISTOTELIN AND MODAL LOGIC

13.         MANY VALUED LOGICS  

14.         SYNOPSIS – CONCLUSIONS


REFERENCES

Αριστοτέλης. (1994). ΑΠΑΝΤΑ (Vols. 23-27) (Νικολούδης, Η. Π., Trans.). Αθήνα: Κάκτος

Hilbert, D. & Ackermann, W. (1999). Principles of mathematical logic (Hammond, L. M., Leckie G. G. & Steinhardt, F. Trans.). Rhode Island: AMS Chelsea publishing. (Original work published 1938).

Kant, I. (2014).  Λογική [Logik, ein handbuch zu vorlesungen] (Τασάκος, Χ., Trans.). Αθήνα: Printa. (Original work published 1800).

Keith, B. A. (1921). An exposition of the NYĀYA and VAIÇEṢIKA Systems. Oxford: Clarendon Press.

Priest, G. (2012). An Introduction to Non-Classical Logic (2nd ed.). Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Sinha, N. (1923). The Vaiśeṣika Sûtras of Kaṇâda. Allahabad: Vijaya Press. 

Tarski, A., (2013). Introduction to Logic and to the Methodology of the Deductive Sciences (Helmer, O., Trans.). Mansfield Centre, USA: Martino Publishing. (Original work published 1941).

Tomassi, P. (1999). Logic. New York: Routledge.

Vidyâbhuṣana, Mahâmahopâdhyaya Satîśa Chandra (1913). The Nyâya Sutras of  Gotama. Allababad: Indian Press.

 


ChaniotisPhoto3* Dimitrios Chaniotis was born in Athens Greece. After the end of a long and productive service as naval officer, he initially collaborated with Athens University and then worked in the private sector. He has studied physics, programming and mathematics and as a postgraduate student bioinformatics and systems engineering. Since 2016 he is a member of ELINEPA studying the Sanskrit language and at the same time philosophy with a British University. In his main interests are included logic (origin and principles), semantics and language synthesis as well as compiler design for advanced applications.

Chaniotis’ articles published in INDIKA

Is it immoral or not to kill animals? INDIKA 2017

This post is also available in: elΕλληνικα (Greek)